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Merre vezetett a damaszkuszi út?

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Móser Zoltán fantasztikus cikksorozata a régmúlt idők, az elfelejtett Magyarország kincseit mutatja meg nekünk ebben a párját ritkító sorozatban, mely a Magyar Nemzet hétvégi magazinjának volt elengedhetetlen tartozéka. Utazzon velünk, ismerjük meg együtt Magyarországot egy kicsit másképpen.

A pusztaszeri szoborleleteket rögtön azután láttam, hogy előkerültek a föld mélyéről, és beszállították őket a szegedi Móra Ferenc Múzeumba. A régészeti munkát irányító Trogmayer Ottónak köszönhetően le is fényképezhettem őket. De akkor csupán töredékek voltak számomra. Hogy mit ábrázolnak, hol álltak eredetileg, arról csak egy évtizeddel később szerezhettem tudomást Trogmayer Ottó könyvéből. Ma az ide látogató vendég már teljes szépségükben láthatja a feltárt romokat, a kutatás, a rekonstrukció eredményeit.
A szeri bencés monostort a beregi egyezmény egyik felsorolásában említik először. Az 1233-ban aláírt okmány évi ezer kősó javadalomban részesíti Szer monostorát. Ez azt jelenti, hogy ekkor már állnia kellett a templomnak és a hozzá kapcsolódó kolostornak. Az itt látható oszlopszobrok nagy valószínűséggel a nyugati díszkapuhoz, illetve annak bélletéhez kapcsolhatók. „Hazánkban eddig egyetlen hasonló kapubélletben álló oszlopszobrot ismertünk, Litérről. A litéri templom a XIII. század első harmadában épült” – írja a Szer monostoráról készült könyvében Trogmayer Ottó. Valószínűleg ekkor, a XIII. század első éveiben készült a szeri előcsarnok nyugati kapuja is. E szobrok technikájának, kivitelezésének legközelebbi megfelelőit Franciaország területén találjuk meg. A templomok főkapujának hasonló díszítése is ott alakult ki, meglehetősen szigorú kötöttségek között. A kapuk bibliai történeteket és személyeket illusztrálnak. A nyugati katedrálisok alakjai ószövetségi próféták, apostolok, esetleg szentek vagy uralkodók. Íme, mit mond a régész:
„Három olyan töredék van, amelynek kezében attribútumként értelmezhető tárgy van. Az egyik nyitott pergamentekercset tart, a másik gömbös végű botot (ez megfelelne egy nagyon korai egyházi méltóságjelvénynek, melyet a pápák is hordtak), a harmadik pedig feje fölé tartott kezeiben kígyót tart. Ez a jelenet ismerős, és azonosítható a bibliai Szent Pál-történettel, aki hajótörést szenvedve Málta szigetén rőzsegyűjtés közben egy kígyóba markolt. A csodás történet során a kígyó nem marta meg az apostolt, aki a veszedelmes hüllőt a már égő tűzbe vetette. Hasonló ábrázolást láthatunk a canterburyi katedrális egyik freskóján is. Ezt az alakot tehát Pál apostollal azonosíthatjuk.
Mindössze két fejtöredékünk van, ezek meglepően hasonlítanak egymáshoz. Ezért feltételezzük, az alkotóművész az azonos jegyek – szakáll, haj, bajusz, szemek – tudatos ismétlésével inkább az azonosságot akarta hangsúlyozni, mintsem a megkülönböztetésre törekedett volna. Megkülönböztető jegy csupán a pileolus. Ha tehát a kígyót tartó alak Pál apostol, akkor a másik figura is, aki kezében az Áron-vesszőt tartja, és vonásaiban megegyezik az előzővel, ugyancsak Pál. Önmagától adódik a kérdés: miért kell ugyanazt az apostolt kétszer is bemutatni valamilyen történet keretében? Talán ehhez ad magyarázatot az egyik töredék, amely egy tunikát viselő alak térdtől lefelé nyúló része… A tunika egy katona viseletének tartozéka lehetett. A közismert történet szerint Pál, megtérése előtt, Saulus néven, katonaként üldözte a keresztényeket. A damaszkuszi úton lejátszódott jelenet után megvakult, s látását csak hosszú imádkozással eltöltött idő után nyerte vissza. E gondolatmenet alapján kézenfekvőnek tűnik az a lehetőség, hogy a bejárat szobrai Pál életének különböző állomásait jelképezik, s ebbe a sorba beleillik a nyitott pergamentekercset – levelet – tartó kéz is.”
A szobrokat mindenképpen Franciaországból érkezett művész faraghatta – írja összegzésként Trogmayer Ottó. A megrendelő pedig nem lehet más, mint a szeri monostor egykori kegyura, Kalán püspök, aki királyi kancellárként minden valószínűség szerint Anonymus közvetlen felettese volt.
Szer monostora a tatárjárás idején bizonyára elpusztult, de hamarosan újjáépítették. A XVI. században a virágzó mezőváros elnéptelenedett, s 1630-tól kezdve már Pusztaszernek – elpusztult templomnak, településnek – nevezik

 Móser Zoltán, mno.hu

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